The dots and numbers are separation of gender (Male.Female.unsexed)
Slings are a term used for baby scorpions or tarantulas
plings are a term used for baby scorpions or centipedes
Instar refers to their life stage. Instar pertaining to scorpions are much more important when describing age and time to maturity as scorpions molt a fixed number of times.
The moment scorplings emerge from the mother they are considered to be 1st instar. A few days after giving birth the scorpions molt for the first time and move on to 2nd instar. This cycle typically repeats for another 4-5 times, sometimes 6 as most scorpions mature at 6th or 7th instar with the rarer occurrence being maturity at 8th instar.
As far as an owners manual goes: One of the best cites for information pertaining to scorpions is right in front of you. There are many seasoned veterans, myself included, who have posted a lot of information on the forums. A good place to look for care information is the All scorpion archives located from a link on the main forum page.
Welcome to the forum!