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 [Info] Scorpion Facts

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Venom
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PostSubject: [Info] Scorpion Facts   11/30/2008, 10:42 pm

Even though they are all pretty alike.
Some do have special properties.
Examples are the Parabuthus flinging.

Or those who can crystallize to survive sub-zero temps.

Those who make noises in different ways...

Actually that's pretty much it.
At least that I know, add on?


Last edited by ~*GS*~ on 12/19/2012, 5:14 am; edited 2 times in total (Reason for editing : Updated title)
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   11/30/2008, 10:55 pm

Parthenogenesis occurs in a handful of species.

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   11/30/2008, 11:43 pm

Do you know why some animals are parthenogenesis?
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 12:31 am

Why are they?

Dunno. I suppose it's advantageous if males are difficult to find, but it doesn't lend itself to a lot of genetic diversity.

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 1:00 pm

probably because of breeding dificulties. i think all T's should be parthogenic because they always fight, same with mantids.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 3:35 pm

^That's a bit of a generalization. I've seen several (successful) breeding attempts with tarantulas where there was no aggression at all. Same goes for mantids; most "female eats the male" situations are due to outside influences (another male showing up, a clumsy scientist, unnatural laboratory settings, etc.).

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 5:07 pm

yea... but it is just easier with pathogenesis...
ok, how about mayflys? they moult from larvae into flys, live from 12hours - 3 days, and in that time have to find a mate. would that not be simpler if they were parthogenic?
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 5:34 pm

How is it biologically possible to be parthogenic?
Where do they get the sperm from?
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 5:44 pm

Venom wrote:
How is it biologically possible to be parthogenic?
Where do they get the sperm from?
They don't need sperm. They just choose to process slings. A bunch of insects, arachnids and even snakes such as some garters and cottonmouths can just choose to have babies if they are females. They still breed with males though for genetic diversity. It is very interesting! I hope to obtain parthenogenic animals some day.
Also to the original topic, some scorpions such as some Centruroides have cardiotoxic venom qualities as well as neurotoxic. Where as most scorps are just varying degrees of nuerotoxic venoms.
TBH
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 6:10 pm

Never heard of the Cardiotoxic Centruroides
Do you know of any specific ones? Or where you heard it?
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 6:13 pm

Please note that its belived that all scorpions have 2 types of venom and can control it..

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 6:17 pm

Hemiscorpius Lepturus has Cytoxin
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 6:26 pm

One chould read this for more infomation about this

http://www.americanarachnology.org/JoA_free/JoA_v21_n1/JoA_v21_p60.pdf

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 6:46 pm

Yes, the stun and kill theory.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   12/1/2008, 9:01 pm

Venom wrote:
Never heard of the Cardiotoxic Centruroides
Do you know of any specific ones? Or where you heard it?
According to this valid site - http://www.toxinology.com/fusebox.cfm?fuseaction=main.scorpions.display&id=SC0067
It is a nuerotoxic mix with cardiotoxic effects from some other toxin.
TBH
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 2:18 am

Can't you delete or move all non fact posts?

Anyway.

The largest buthidae is Parabuthus Transvaalicus
The largest Centruroides was a C.Gracilis
The largest scorpion is a H.Swammerdami

Some scorpions have a light sensitive telson.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 2:27 am

[Lets genetically engineer a scorpion with all venoms.
]
what about flying scorpion ?
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 2:59 am

talrusan wrote:
[Lets genetically engineer a scorpion with all venoms.
]
what about flying scorpion ?

Now that's just dumb.

Greek myth: Orion, son of Zeus, was killed by a scorpion created by Godess Arteuis. After this the constellations of scorpio and Orion where put as far as part from each other, and you can see the constellation Orion still runs from scorpio as the constellation cycles make Orion dissapear right when scorpio appears.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 3:00 am

Might as well put them all now.




Venoms
Toxins may be classifed in three classes.
First Class consists exclusively of effects on the process of NA+ inactivities.
Second class involves principally an effect on process of Na+ activition, with minor effects on inactivation and a nonspecific reduction of peak inward currents.
Third is reduction only of inward Na+ currentsOrgans affected with most venoms- Cardiovascular system, lungs, visceral, smooth muscles, uterus, various glands and skeltol muscles.
Nerve terminals of autonomic system and adenal medulla are depolarized, causing massive release of neurotransmitters, including catecholamilnes.
Effects on Dogs and mice- Parasympathetic symptoms(lacrimation, salvation, sphiaeler relaxation, gastric distention, exagerated peristaleris, bradycardia, and hypotension)
Sympathetic symptoms(Mydriasis, perspiration, piloerection, hyperglycemia, tachycardia, & Hypertension
Payhological studies in dogs reveal extensive hemorrhages in the heart, kidne, lungs, and intestines; General conestion of all organs
Hystopathological findings include focal myocarditis and thrombatic occlusion of capillaries.
Pathophysiological due to massive release of catecholanines from adrenal glands and sympathetic nerve endings.
Injections of 125^ I labeled venom of LQQ into female rats >>> High levels of radioactivity were found in urine 15 minutes after administration.
Many scorpion venoms, unlike spiders and snake's venoms, either lack in enzymes or have very low levels of enzymes.
heterometrus scaber contains several enzymes, including acid phosphate, ribonucleuse, 5-nucleotidase, hyaluronidase, acetylcholinesterase, and phosholipase A.
Another componnent in sme scorpions, serotonin(5-hydroxytryptamine), increase pain.
Toxins are single-chain protein 60-70 amino acids. except short-chain(35-40) toxins from Mesobuthus eupeus and Noxius toxin from Centruroides Noxious.
The venom is poisonous to a broad spectrum of animals, including humans, rodent, rabbits, chicks, ahtropods, and many others.
A few spiders, locusts are immune to venom.
Scorpions are resistant to their own toxin teutralized by hemolymph. If venom is injected into the ganglion, scorpion immideatly dies.


Envenimation in Humans
-Medically signigicant species to humans are found in the families Buthidae:Androctonus, Burhacus, Buthus, centruroides, Leirus, Mesobuthus, Parabuthus, Tityus.
-Most envenomations occur from summer to early autumn
-Local symptoms, lasting to several hours, gnerally consist of burning pain, occasional swelling, erythema of ecchymoses.
-Adolescents/Adults invariably complain of pain, when children do less often.
-systematic symptoms may be absent, develop within minutes, or delayed several hours.
-Development of systemic symptoms relate to multiple factors(Mortality 5-10X greater in infants)
Factors:Location of sting, amount of venom injected, and physical condition of reciever.
Symptoms in humans:Sweating, pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypertension -early autonomic and branchial motor involvement may ollow with salvation and production of frothy sputun, respitory wheezing, stridor, and distress; blurred bision, roving eyes, and oclogiric crisis; and slurred speech, dysphagia, and pharynged spasms.
-Advanced systems: Musce twitching, motor hyperactivity, incoordination, increased tone, myoclonic twitches, and opisthotothonus. Muscle stretcher reflects eitherr hyper or hypoactive. extreme restlesness(Resembling seuizure) often in children. Chest pain, vomiting, gastric distress, diareah, abdominal cramps and temperature dysregulation. Altered senses, cyanasis, hypotension, bradycardic, paresis, incontinence, seizures, respitory and cardiac failure.
- Over 70 toxins have been isolated from the venoms of scorpions

Myths and Folklore
Mithras, Persion God of light sacrificed a bull to fertilize the universe. The evil spirit Ahriam sent a scorpion to attack the bulls testicles, destroying the source of life.
-Scorpions as devil ascocciates, was shown with Mithros , who was popular with Roman armies as late as the 5th century A.D. especially in North Africa and Germany.
-Greek myth: Orion, son of Zeus, was killed by a scorpion created by Godess Arteuis. After this the constellations of scorpio and Orion where put as far as part from each other, and you can see the constellation Orion still runs from scorpio as the constellation cycles make Orion dissapear right when scorpio appears.
-Scorpions where believed to appear from decayin crocodiles in egypt.
-Falcons where honored in Egypt because they ate scorpions.
-Army of Cato of Utica, who served in opposition to Julius Ceaser was said to be menaced by dragons, basiliks, and other monsters including scorpions which killed the soldiers with their venom.
- In Astrology, scorpio is an ill omened constellation that brings cold, darkness , and storm causing wars and exerting evil influence on affairs of men.
-Apollodorus is thought to have documented the first scorpion with two tails(Metasomas)

Defensive adaptations
Many scorpions of the same specie have different colors depending on their locality (H.Concolorus is darker in volcanic areas an rusty-red in sedimentary soils.
-Thin clawed scorpions(i.e. buthidae) use stinging as their main defense.
-The other thick-chelae scorpions have strong chelae. Opisthalmus wieghing 4.9grams was able to pick up a 100 g weight with one pedipalp.
-Chelae are used to shield. Some scorpions use them to seal their entrances.
-Parabuthus and Hadrurus have been reported to sprat/Flick venom.
-Stridulation:
4 types:Pedipalp to walking legs, Chelicerae to cephalothrax, metasoma/mesasoma to stinger.

Other
Upper lethal temps are between 45C-47C(50C is tolerated in short cases)
Body temp for Vaejovis specie has been recorded at -5.8C, -5C to -9.5 for Diplocentrus peloncillensis, and -8.6 to -11.9 for Pauractonus Utahensis.
Deathstalker temperatures have been recorded at -7.4C even though it would never experience this in its natural habitat
C.Vittatus tolerates limited freezing of its body tissue.
Lipids and wax help prevent water loss, they are arranged in a more water conserving matter in desert species.
Females which are starved absorb some embryos to keep living.
The mother young bond of scorpions is due to chemoreception.
When the young where placed on females of another specie the young did not remain there.
euscorpius female picked up its fallen young. Young with strange unkown scents where rejected by its mother or eaten.
The chemical stimuli isn't specie specific, the young of E.italius where placed on E.Carpathicus and remained indefinetly
Urophonius brachycents from Argentina are born in december and January underground. After birth the young rest on their mother's back or on the walls of the underground chamber. This makes it the only specie reported so far that does not need to remain on its mother's back as first instar. They hold long nutrional reserves that can last them 25 days as first instar.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 3:26 am

^^Sounds like pure awesome.

Venom wrote:
The largest buthidae is Parabuthus Transvaalicus

How big do they get? I've seen pictures of some pretty dang big Centruroides.

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 3:59 am

I heard they rival emps excluding their girth.


Big Centruroides
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 4:08 am

awesome !
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 11:12 am

^That's what I meant when I said that some Centruroides get huge. Is P. transvaalicus bigger than that?

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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 11:34 am

Apparently they do.
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PostSubject: Re: [Info] Scorpion Facts   1/13/2009, 1:51 pm

is that a C. bicolor?????
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